The importance of an adequate braking system cannot be understated. It's quite literally the only thing that will stop your car from running into things.
DISCLAIMER: As always, follow all safety protocols. Don't undertake this task if you aren't comfortable with it and fully understand it. You are ultimately responsible for anything you do. Neither Redpants, LLC or myself is responsible or liable for anything that may occur.
The Basics of Brakes
Let's go over the basic components of a braking system. There's a ton of information online for all of this, so I'm just going to cover a few main topics that are relevant to our cars and the options we have for our brakes.
The rotors (or discs) are mounted in the same place as your wheels and tires, and they spin at the same rate. When you press the brake pedal, the brake pads clamp down on the rotors, which slows the rotation speed of the wheels and tires, thus slowing down the car.
There are three primary kinds of brake rotors: One-piece iron, two-piece iron and aluminum, and carbon ceramic matrix (CCM).
One-piece iron rotors are the de facto standard. They're inexpensive to make and are by far the most common brake rotors you'll see.
Two-piece rotors have an iron rotor with an aluminum center hat, the two of which are bolted together. The benefit of these is lighter weight - the aluminum center is lighter than an iron center. When you need to replace the discs, you only need to replace the iron portion and can reuse the aluminum hat, which reduces costs long-term.
Carbon ceramic rotors are two-piece with the CCM material replacing the iron of the two-piece rotors described above. CCM rotors are even more light-weight than normal two-piece rotors as the carbon material is much lighter than iron. However, these are incredibly expensive items, and they typically need to operate at a high temperature so they come with some downsides related to that.
This is where you have most of your customization options.