Acronyms, translations, and definitions

AM (Aston Martin) - Shorthand for the name of the company.
AMDS (Aston Martin Diagnostic System) - The AMDS is Aston Martin's proprietary system for connecting with a car, diagnosis, calibrations, fault clearing, and certain system settings.
AML (Aston Martin Lagonda) - Acronym for the company's full name.
ASM (Auto-Shift Manual) - AKA Sportshift, this is Aston Martin's paddle-shifted transmission. It's a robotized manual gearbox with a clutch, not an automatic with a torque converter.
Bonnet - British English word for the hood.
Boot - British English word for the trunk.
Brake disc - British English term for brake rotor.
CCM (carbon-ceramic matrix) - Refers to the brake rotors found on the DBS, V12 Vantage, Vanquish, and other Astons. These rotors are much lighter than the cast iron discs found on most cars.
CEM (Central Electronic Module) - The computer brain of the car.
Handbrake - British English term for parking brake (AKA e-brake).
LHD (Left-Hand Drive) - Refers to the location of the steering wheel in the car from the perspective of the driver. Cars in the USA are left-hand drive.
Petrol - British English word for gas.
Q - This is Aston Martin's in-house customization and special projects division. Yes, it's named after the Bond character.
RHD (Right-Hand Drive) - Refers to the location of the steering wheel in the car from the perspective of the driver. Cars in the UK are right-hand drive.
Sill - British English word for rocker panel.
TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System) - This consists of a central module and four tire pressure sensors.
Tyre - British English word for tire.
Windscreen - British English word for windshield.
Wing - British English word for fender.

Model shorthand is easy to figure out as each term is fairly consistent.

V8V - V8 Vantage
V8VS - V8 Vantage S
V8VGT - V8 Vantage GT
V12V - V12 Vantage
V12VS - V12 Vantage S